El urbanismo de baja densidad en las Tierras Bajas Mayas: El caso de El Perú-Waka’, Petén, Guatemala

Damien Bernard Marken, Matthew C. Ricker, Alexander Rivas, Erika Maxson

Resumen


Como ejemplos clave del urbanismo en el Nuevo Mundo indígena, las ciudades mayas son temas de gran trascendencia antropológica. A pesar de su importancia comparativa, durante gran parte del siglo veinte los centros mayas del Clásico (ca. 250-950 d.C.) han sido vistos como “no-ciudades”, capitales de entidades complejas, pero marcadas por la ausencia de una densidad característica de lugares puramente urbanos. Fletcher propuso que el urbanismo maya corresponde a un tipo urbano que denomina “urbanismo agrario de baja-densidad”; aunque, como todas las categorías tipológicas, también tiene debilidades. Este artículo presenta los resultados de más de diez años de investigación de la ciudad maya clásica de El Perú-Waka’, en Guatemala, con el fin de evaluar el modelo de Fletcher en el área maya. Los datos procedentes de Waka’ sugieren que, a pesar de que en general el modelo de Fletcher es ampliamente aplicable a las Tierras Bajas, es necesario volver a examinar diversos supuestos sobre las ciudades mayas.


Palabras clave


arqueología; urbanismo antiguo; mayas clásicos; patrones de asentamiento; gestión hidráulica

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19130/iifl.ecm.2019.54.970

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