Emociones, Semillas Nativas y Cambio Climático: El Movimiento de Soberanía de las Semillas en Chiapas, México

Carol Hernández Rodríguez, Hugo Perales Rivera, Daniel Jaffee

Resumen


¿Qué papel juegan las emociones en la definición de marcos interpretativos que permiten a las comunidades responder acertadamente a los retos impuestos por cambio climático? Este artículo explora empíricamente esta pregunta desde la perspectiva de pequeñas comunidades campesinas en la región central de Chiapas, México. Este estudio de caso muestra que los significados espirituales, culturales y materiales que las comunidades campesinas asignan a la milpa y sus semillas nativas, especialmente al maíz, convergen en un conjunto de emociones que permiten a sus miembros reconocer los riesgos de degradación ambiental y cambio climático y movilizarse políticamente en torno a la idea de soberanía de las semillas. Particularmente importante es el sistema informal de herencia de semillas de maíz de padres a hijos, el cual impone sobre las nuevas generaciones de campesinos la obligación moral y social de reproducir la milpa en orden de mantener vivo el espíritu de sus ancestros y deidades, contenido en las semillas, y preservar las condiciones ambientales necesarias para que las próximas generaciones puedan también vivir de la tierra y el maíz. El movimiento local de soberanía de las semillas exhorta y magnifica las emociones que subyacen este compromiso moral al tiempo que enfatiza los riesgos para la reproducción futura de la milpa y las semillas impuestos por practicas agrícolas (uso de agroquímicos, deforestación, cuasi-monocultivos) que contribuyen a la degradación del medio ambiente. Tres agendas constituyen los principales ejes del movimiento: agroecología, conservación de la agro-biodiversidad, y adaptación de la milpa a cambio climático.

Palabras clave


maíz; milpa; sistemas campesinos de semillas; herencia de semillas; altar maya.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19130/iifl.ecm.2020.56.1041

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